Heat Pump Calculator 2. Use the Accumulator return calculator to work out your winnings online for all sports. Heat loss from lagged and unlagged, sheltered and exposed oil tanks. Rheem Tank-type Features. The term "heat loss" commonly refers to the heat transfer of an object to its ambient environment. As the heat leakage is determined by the structure of the. If you're trying to lose weight, it is helpful to understand energy balance. This is a very common system in the process industries - insulated pipes are everywhere, and engineers need a sound grasp of heat transfer principles to model their effects. The nVent RAYCHEM NGC-30 FLEX Series is designed to optimize heat trace panel configurations and meet customer project needs by reducing production lead times and simplifying design options. Heat from the interior space must be able to move into the water where it can be dissipated or removed by cooling breezes. The specific heat capacity of water is 4180 J kg 1 K-1. It continues to heat and reheat water, even when there is no need for hot water. The colder fluid is sent back to the boiler and the process repeats itself until optimum water temperature has been attained. Engineering Page provides online calculation and information services for engineers. Watts Loss From Insulated Surface: Calculation Form To determine Watts required to replace Heat Losses from an Insulated Surface, Complete the fields below. According to the calculation results, the level of 6m is regarded as a critical level determining the heat loss. Using the “gpd 2 ” formula above, I calculated that your production would be 16 gpd, very close to your example. The cryogenic tank is constructed, in principle, like a vacuum bottle. 02 has two accurate zero-to-10-psi pressure gauges, one at the top and one on the bottom. Factors like wind velocities, conductivity of insulating. Perlite Insulation. This article shows how to calculate heat loss from an insulated pipe and a bare pipe to. 04 W/ft 2/°F x 50°F ΔT = 2 W/ft2 Q = Adjusted W/ft 2 x tank surface area Q = 2 W/ft2 x 175. How to Calculate Heat Loss for Your Steam Pipes. It doesn’t have the features you may find in other devices but that’s kind of the point. 8 m diameter and 6. To this end, to calculate heat loading, you need to calculate the contribution from each source and add them together. Stirred Tank Fermenter; The stirred tank fermenter is the most common reactor used for biological reactions (Towler, 2012) and is similar to the stirred tanks discussed previously. For homes, solar radiation from the sun is by far the biggest source as the sun bears down on the roof and walls. The specific heat can be found by rearranging the formula: c = 4190 J/kg∙K. Volume / Surface Area Calculator: Tank Type. Calculating Coefficient of Performance. Major Head Loss – Frictional Loss. Determination of heat requirements, heat transfer and heat loss calculations are all covered in this tutorial. 33 * 60 * 30°ΔT) = X. A word of caution, don't heat your tank with the lid on. Load calculations for commercial kitchens with the consideration of full heat gains and moisture loads Featured Article: Chiller Plant Optimized Without Capital Expenditures Alabama office tower and laboratory reduce energy use without capital expenditures. Heat Pump Calculator 1. It calculates both heat loss in the summer and heat load in the winter. D41 Technical Data Heat Calculations Heating Liquids (Water) An open steel tank, 2 ft. EXHEAT Industrial is renowned designer and manufacturer of electical process heating and control systems. bottom and sides have. Another case for making the tank larger than the general rule is to add cooling capacity. Calculation of temperature rise: Surface area of 4 vertical side of the tank (Heat is considered to be dissipated from 4 vertical sides of the tank) St= 2(Wt + lt) Ht m2 (Excluding area of top and bottom of tank) Let = Temp rise of oil (35o C to 50o C) 12. The second is to design the system to compensate for the heat loss or gain. Since the body had this kinetic energy when it was moving, that energy had to go somewhere when it stopped, probably to heat and sound energy. To determine the heat loss from the chart, the water surface temperature must be selected from the top scale. Heat Loss Calculation Application: Excellent when determining heat loss of a building as a whole. The Pipe Flow interface contains ready to use friction models accounting for the surface roughness of pipes as well as pressure losses in bends and valves. A Free flash online stopwatch, quick easy to use flash stopwatch! also a countdown timer!. To correct the calculation for the consistent temperature, volume, and /or virtual leak changes that occur during the test cycle, there is a “tare” factor that offsets the pressure loss measurement. This website should only be used as a guide to indicate how well an Ecodan air source heat pump can perform IF the system incorporating that heat pump is designed, installed, commissioned and operated correctly. Contact headquarters for more information. The heat energy lost from surfaces by radiation, convection and evaporation is determined from the surface area and the loss rate in watts per square foot per hour. • Heat losses are a strong function of both wind velocity and ambient air humidity. Heat production is more or less proportional to volume. This chapter deals with the theoretical and mathematical aspects of heat conduction, and it can be covered selectively, if desired, without causing a sig-nificant loss in continuity. Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient. In times of heavy hot water usage, less hot water will be available until after a period of “reheating” time. That’s the reason why we are planning to construct the underground water tank while foundation work. These are currently the three most widely used refrigerants on the market today for HVAC applications in residential and commercial use. Heat, presented by the symbol Q and unit Joule, is chosen to be positive when heat flows into the system, and negative if heat flows out of the system (see Figure 17. For a wall of steady thickness, the rate of heat loss is given by:. I wear a tank top underneath, to help collect the sweat and even then, it still gets on my shirt. We bring you rugged, hardworking products, state-of-the-art technology, custom-engineered systems and services, and more than a century of knowledge and. Located between the outer tank and the inner tank, the insulation layer creates the necessary shield for preserving heat which, in turn, helps reduce heat loss as well as energy consumption. A typical heat load calculation consists of surface heat loss calculation and heat loss due to air infiltration. Moreover, the heat loss of floating roof tank in different working conditions is predicted. If you are already a PSE customer, you can sign in to your PSE account to access billing information, payment options, conservation tips and much more. Codeware provides software covering pressure vessel and shell and tube heat exchanger design, 3D CAD, drawing, welding and API 579-1 fitness-for-service. Use the formula in Figure 6-6 to figure tank-cooling capacity. Heat loss from a hot water cylinder should be proportional to the temperature differential between the inside and the outside of the cylinder by a constant: Watts of heat loss per kelvin. Thermal conduction is the molecular transport of heat under the effect of a temperature gradient. The thicker the insulation, the smaller the heat loss. Venting Calculation for Inbreathing due to liquid movement out of the tank As per API 2000, the inbreathing flow should be sized to correspond to the maximum liquid movement out of the tank. According to the calculation results, the level of 6m is regarded as a critical level determining the heat loss. Approximate heat loss of the desired volume can be calculated through help of these tables. An ant, like other insects, has an exoskeleton. Our complete range of custom-engineered process, immersion heaters, room heaters and thermostats have extensive IECEx, ATEX and CSA certification. is always positive. Estimates Heat Loss from an Insulated and Bare Horizontal Steel Pipe along with calculation of Surface Temperature. Perlite Insulation. Heat loss calculations. 9 ft2 Heat Loss from Tank = 351. There were two direct-fired, high-heat (up to 2000?F) furnaces with manipulators, cool-down fan station and 2,000- to 5,000-gallon water-quench tanks. Consider the specific heats : H2O(s) = 2. They just give the loss in one BTU/hr figure. A2A: How do we calculate the pressure inside a closed vessel initially filled with air and water then heated up until all water converted to steam and let water volume equals 10 percent of vessel's volume?. The water in the tank is used strictly to store heat — it is not part of the potable water system. Heat loss calculation in a vertical, horizontal tank and a pipleline. 9 A 3-m internal diameter spherical tank made of 2-cm-thick stainless steel(k = 15 W/m · °C) is used to store iced water at T1 = 0°C. h = depth of enclosure. 4 (natural gas). Because the coefficient for heat transfer from the outside of the pipe as a result of radiation and convection is much less than all other heat-transfer coefficients involved in this example, the surface temperature of the pipe can be assumed to be that of the steam. This is very suitable for situations such as domestic piping and hosing, sprinkler and irrigation systems, etc. Heat Exchanger Rating (Bell-Delaware Method) Heat Exchanger Analysis (ε - NTU Method) Heat Loss from Insulated Pipe. Also, this doesn't include the load for my partially finished basement (15 ft of baseboard) although I don't often heat the basement. 293 watt-hour or the energy released by burning one match. Assuming the heat loss is accurate, I'd probably look at a Triangle Tube PTS60 or a Lochinvar WHN055 for that heating load. Heater to Tank Pressure Drop Total head due to pressure drop Pump head Circulation Tank Heat Loss Duty Tank T22 Heat Loss duty l/F Contents Density ρf Thermal Conductivity kf Viscosity μf Thermal Expansion β Wall Temperature Film Coefficient hc ∆t/do Gfc μf' units cp t1 degF t2 degF 1/ρav Outside Film Coefficient hc Calculation Reference. Heat loss calculation in a vertical and horizontal storage tank and in a pipeline Theoretical background info. Convection mechanism of heat occurs in liquids and gases, whereby flow processes transfer heat. Proper size should be based on energy-loss calculations figured from your house size, window areas, insulation levels, and related features. As an example, you can use the calculator to determine the necessary flow rate of an LPG in a gas furnace, for required burner heat power. Mathematical modelling of heat exchange in ash tank heat exchanger cascades P 1. Example: Calculation of Heat Exchanger. In this post, I provide you the example of my calculation and I hope you find it useful. 2″ High density foam insulation – Minimizes heat loss with an R value of 12. Thermal conduction is the molecular transport of heat under the effect of a temperature gradient. This is the heat per kilogram needed to make the change between the solid and gas phases, as when dry ice evaporates. Low power or loss of cleaning action; Let the tank degas for at least 15 min. If the resultant pipe wall temperature is above the recommended maximum, try two conduits and two runs of a lower wattage cable and re-calculate the formula. Many factors affect the performance of an Ecodan air source heat pump; and in turn the data displayed on this website. The conduction calculator deals with the type of heat transfer between substances that are in direct contact with each other. Consider the specific heats : H2O(s) = 2. And all of that is factored in the BEE star rating of the water heater as well as in the standing loss derived for the water heater. These templates use S. A fixed-roof tank releases emissions through a vapor vent as liquid is pushed into the tank, displacing any built-up vapors. Venting Calculation for Inbreathing due to liquid movement out of the tank As per API 2000, the inbreathing flow should be sized to correspond to the maximum liquid movement out of the tank. Fin length, L =. 2083 (100/c) 1. Btu stands for – British thermal unit –. materials in the cooling system, or excessive heat from lack of coolant or cavitation. A A tank containing 400 kg of kerosene is to be heated from 10 °C to 40 °C in 20 minutes (1 200 seconds), using 4 bar g steam. The surface loss and other unaccounted percentage loss is assumed to have certain values based on the type and size of the boiler. Better the insulation lower the heat loss. Tank Heat Loss. The benefits of caring for your water heater are clear. 5 psi, you can calculate the level from the pressure difference. These furnaces were used for hardening 17Cr and 27Cr white irons, solution treating manganese steel, and normalizing and annealing other steels. Air ventilation over tank - As you increase the operating temperature of the tank, surface heat losses become significant, especially when there is air passing over the tank surface. Hopefully this calculator will help you with the calculations. The human body gains and loses heat in two ways: body heat – the internal heat generated by metabolic processes; exchange with the environment – the body exchanges heat with its surroundings mainly through:. For a wall of steady thickness, the rate of heat loss is given by:. Free Calculators and Converters. A typical system consists of the following components: a cryogenic storage tank, one or more vaporizers, a pressure control system, and all of the piping required for fill, vaporization. Major losses, which are associated with frictional energy loss per length of pipe depends on the flow velocity, pipe length, pipe diameter, and a friction factor based on the roughness of the pipe, and whether the flow is laminar or turbulent (i. Made from CFC-free polyurethane foam , the insulation encases the inner tank while ensuring the safety of the outer tank even at high temperatures. • Calculate the heat rejected through cooling. 8 Watts H r D L W H A-1. (optional power anodes are available on select sizes). The specific heat capacity of a substance depends upon the volume and pressure of the material. The Dehumidifier Size Calculator answers how many pints of capacity you require to dry your basement, bedroom, or home. Calculating Coefficient of Performance. The wall temperature, calculated as function of the difference between internaI and externaI temperature of the tank, as well as of the physical char- acteristics of the product, will then in general be variable in time with the variation of these parameters. Answer in units of kJ. Both should be done separately for every room in the house, so having a floor plan with dimensions of all walls, floors, ceiling, as well as doors and windows is a good place to start. You fill the tank, pop it on the battery and away you go. Because the coefficient for heat transfer from the outside of the pipe as a result of radiation and convection is much less than all other heat-transfer coefficients involved in this example, the surface temperature of the pipe can be assumed to be that of the steam. An example problem is shown later in this chapter. 5 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 26 28 30. If you don't know the air velocity over your tank, select "1 foot/second". If you have multiple floors, then add up all the air conditioned area for all floors and insert a single number for the HVAC Building Area value. As energy, heat is measured in watts (W) whilst temperature is measured in degrees Celsius (°C) or Kelvin (K). Heat from the interior space must be able to move into the water where it can be dissipated or removed by cooling breezes. Thermal energy travels from hot material to cold material. Therefore, as the flue gas is heating the water tank, the coils are taking up the heat. The heat loss from the tank is therefore equal to the power of the electric heating element. Leaking engine or auxiliary oil cooler. The Pump Head (Hydraulic head or piezometric head) is a specific measurement of liquid pressure above a specific point. A Free flash online stopwatch, quick easy to use flash stopwatch! also a countdown timer!. This is the heat per kilogram needed to make the change between the solid and gas phases, as when dry ice evaporates. Everyone learns or shares information via question-and-answer. Household size Electric storage Heat pump Solar hot water; 1 - 3 people. Calculate the pressure loss for 90° bend, Ø 250 mm and air flow 500 m 3 /h. This ultra calculator is special by allowing you to choose among a great variety of units (12 per category. Additionally we’ll need the weight of the material to be heated, the specific heat of the material and the time required to heat the material from its start temperature to its end temperature. If it is a two story house, multiply the heat loss of the first level by the appropriate Ceiling Correction Factor from Table D (page 6). Reference: Incropera Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, Frank P. Storage tank: Our payback calculations are based on replacing a 50-gallon storage tank water heater with a tankless water heater, then calculating how much the tankless model costs to operate and. Calculation. Whether your project involves tank heating, vessel heating or any combination of these, CompuTrace VT has what it takes to help design your heat tracing system. h = depth of enclosure. Do not Alter Fields Marked in Red. Heat Transfer Methods Heat transfers in three ways: Conduction Convection Radiation Conduction When you heat a metal strip at one end, the heat travels to the other end. Consult the manufacturer's documentation to find out what the efficiency of your particular heating unit is. If the top of the reactor is sealed and insulated the heat loss becomes minimal, i. NOTE the Air Receiver/Tank GALLON SIZE 7. The water surrounding the heat exchanger never leaves the tank. The latent heat of vaporization, L v. A = π r 2 + 2ra and it can be proven that r = w/2 and a = h - w where h>w must always be true. This article shows how to calculate heat loss from an insulated pipe and a bare pipe to surroundings. Estimates Heat Loss from an Insulated and Bare Horizontal Steel Pipe along with calculation of Surface Temperature. Finally, we consider heat conduction problems with variable thermal conductivity. Heat loss calculation in a vertical and horizontal storage tank and in a pipeline Theoretical background info. TANKS is based on the emission estimation procedures from Chapter 7 of EPA's Compilation Of Air Pollutant Emission Factors (AP-42). Enter the insulation area (as a percentage of the. 095 m into the tank on the two walls of the tank of width equal to 1. Because pressure is force divided by area, its meter-kilogram-second (MKS) units are newtons per square meter, or N/m2. As a result, in unfavorable temperatures a baby will become distressed much more rapidly than an adult. Heat loss is reduced as air is a poor conductor of heat. The term "heat loss" commonly refers to the heat transfer of an object to its ambient environment. Conduction occurs as the heat from the higher temperature fluid passes through the solid wall. The resulting expression for total heat loss agrees with observed cooling pond performance better than other formulas presently in use. It is the height to which a pump can raise the water / fluid up. There is a gain in heat from the gas. This means that if we add 1 BTU of heat to 1 lbm of water, the temperature will rise 1°F. Circuit waterworks provides the necessary pressure of water supplied to the turbine blades, which drives a generator, producing electricity. Q=C(T final –T initial). We define the head developed by a pump as. 4 degree C; Tank is 6. An ant, like other insects, has an exoskeleton. Welcome to Puget Sound Energy. Ruffneck™ Heat Loss Calculator Ruffneck™ Heater Sizing Calculator Literature & Media Brochures / Catalogs Thermon offers a simple system for cost-effective heating of tanks and hoppers utilizing our RT and RTF for tank heating, HT Module for hopper heating and ThermaSeam for standing seam insulation systems. Round to nearest ten. A way to reduce loss from evaporation would be to reduce the volume of the space above the liquid in the tank. The actual production of heat, called the Output BTU, will be the main factor in deciding which heating unit is right for your home. day at 97 % MC with a mean yearly temperature of 12 O C. 4 Head loss due to pipe line length in pump suction and delivery( J ): 1. Kothari, Chemical Engineering, March 22, 1982, P-127 Yellow fields are input Red fields are results * These calculations are provided for educational use only - USE AT YOUR OWN RISK. Building Regulations require that a SAP calculation and a Predicted EPC is submitted for new dwellings prior to the commencement of work. Heat from the interior space must be able to move into the water where it can be dissipated or removed by cooling breezes. ΔT = T 2 - T 1. In a mold cooling system Turbulent water flow is much more efficient at removing heat than laminar flow. EXHEAT Industrial is renowned designer and manufacturer of electical process heating and control systems. This tool, part of our collection of articles and tools on how to choose the right immersion heater, will allow you to easily calculate the wattage you need for an immersion heater (tank heater). Setting up a planted tank for the first time can be a daunting task. The problem statement was: Heat marine fuel oil from 50 to 60 degree C in 5 hours. " A car's fuel consumption is a measure of miles driven per gallon of gas. Tank of a 3-Phase transformer. The Pipe Flow interface contains ready to use friction models accounting for the surface roughness of pipes as well as pressure losses in bends and valves. U-value calculations will invariably be required when establishing construction strategies. The list of terms below gives an explanation for the variables. Correctly configure lines and tanks Minimise the pressure loss of your system and avoid idling losses by ensuring the correct choice of pipe diameters, tank size and line components. Boiling point of water is considered to be 100 Â°C or 212 Â°F. f = friction head loss in feet of water per 100 feet of pipe (ft h20 /100 ft. I wear a tank top underneath, to help collect the sweat and even then, it still gets on my shirt. (optional power anodes are available on select sizes). Heat Pump Calculator 2. Consult the manufacturer's documentation to find out what the efficiency of your particular heating unit is. Do not Alter Fields Marked in Red. Liquefied petroleum gas is a mixture of propane, butane, and other components. It is unsafe to overfill a tank, and they say typically not to fill a grill tank over 80%, but the OPD will usually kick in before 80% in any case. Properties of Radiative Heat Transfer Course Description LearnChemE features faculty prepared engineering education resources for students and instructors produced by the Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at the University of Colorado Boulder and funded by the National Science Foundation, Shell, and the Engineering Excellence Fund. 10M Plus: R22, Thickness: 10mm (0. The resulting expression for total heat loss agrees with observed cooling pond performance better than other formulas presently in use. This article provides calculation methods for correlating design, flow rate and pressure loss as a fluid passes through a nozzle or orifice. The Pump Head (Hydraulic head or piezometric head) is a specific measurement of liquid pressure above a specific point. For homes, solar radiation from the sun is by far the biggest source as the sun bears down on the roof and walls. Easy to install, ThermoPEX is the best insulated piping system for your outdoor furnace, saving energy and maximizing efficiency by keeping heat loss to a minimum. Calculate the temperature distribution in a steel cylinder 1 min after the surrounding temperature is suddenly changed. Consult the manufacturer's documentation to find out what the efficiency of your particular heating unit is. In tank blanketing, a low-pressure flow of nitrogen gas (typically less than a few psig) with purities of between 95% to 99. A geothermal heat pump's earth loop installation is not just a matter of burying some pipes and hooking these pipes to your geothermal heat pump. This ultra calculator is special by allowing you to choose among a great variety of units (12 per category. If you're trying to lose weight, it is helpful to understand energy balance. Thermal conduction is the molecular transport of heat under the effect of a temperature gradient. Indirect tank heating uses a heat transfer medium to apply the heat to the tank. Heat Sink Calculator is a software tool for designing, analysing and optimizing heat sink performance. +39 049 8840322 Fax +39 049 8841399 Via Sabbioni, 2 - 35024 Bovolenta Padova Italy 45° 16’ 02. 22 loss 22 out out in in s out in p V pV w zz γγ g g gg + + = + +− − In this equation, the symbol. Calculation results (total head) Table 5 brings together all the previous calculations and the result is the total head required of the pump. They are saying the modern heat pumps can give you 3. The first is conduction, which is defined as transfer of heat occurring through intervening matter without bulk motion of the matter. Therefore, reducing either one of these will reduce the heat loss. 100% would indicate that the intercooler cooled the compressed air all the way down to the ambient air temperature. Diameter is related to friction due to the factor of how much area of water is in contact with pipe. Compressed Air & Gas Institute 1300 Sumner Avenue Cleveland, OH 44115. (optional power anodes are available on select sizes). Friction Loss Further Detailed Information. A significant amount of heat may be transferred through the tank shell and the volume of vapors generated as a result of this heat input can be substantial. A solid (a block of metal, say) has one surface at a high temperature and one at a lower temperature. Figure 14 shows a stirred tank fermenter. The floor heating system pumps water from near the top of the tank through the radiant floor. Multiply result by wind correction factor from above for total heat loss. Watts, Heat and Light : Measuring The Heat Output of Different Lamps. 1 ft 2 Center Line Distance L = 2’ + 7’ = 9’ Velocity V = 3400/2. Most solar water heaters contain a heat exchanger to separate the potable water from the solar heating solution (Water/Glycol) and have a great insulation value that can retain the heat for day. These K-values may be used to determine the pressure loss from a fluid flowing through these entrances and exits. WARNING: The products listed on this site may contain nicotine. Choosing the right size and type of furnace is a job for a qualified central air conditioning contractor or dealer. 8 m 3 of water) Blowdown or Draw off. Conduction occurs as the heat from the higher temperature fluid passes through the solid wall. Hot Water Tank An Overview Sciencedirect Topics. 5" thickness. During July 1995, a two-year-old child in southeast Louisiana died as a result of heat exposure in an enclosed automobile. As the test shows, the loss is significant, and reducing tank heat loss is definitely worthwhile. where P is the heat loss in Watt, hlc is the heat loss coefficient, T mash is the interior temperature, and T A is the ambient temperature, both in °C or K. So, the first step in sizing an earth loop is having a correct heat loss/gain calculation done. Thermal energy storage in the form of sensible heat is based on the speciﬁ c heat of a storage medium, which is usually kept in storage tanks with high thermal insulation. Heat loss and gain is proportional to surface area. the greater the loss through the jacket Hi hot rod, The manufacturer didn't seem to give any consideration to the delta T. This implies that the object in question — a wall, for example. The heat added to the system, Qin, is a function of the overall heat transfer coefficient, U (W/m 2 K), the area available for heat transfer, A (m 2 ), the driving force for heat transfer which is the difference between the jacket temperature and the. Because the coefficient for heat transfer from the outside of the pipe as a result of radiation and convection is much less than all other heat-transfer coefficients involved in this example, the surface temperature of the pipe can be assumed to be that of the steam. Calculate the power of the kettle. We know that as the diameter of the pipe increases, loss due to friction also increases; the bigger the diameter, the larger the area of contact. Evaporation in swimming polls in kg/h m2 according to the type of activity in the covered swimming pools. Oil Tanks Heat Loss. engine heat directly to the surrounding air greatly simplifies its removal from the engine, and eliminating heat exchangers from the heat flow path greatly reduces inefficiencies that can limit system performance. This then means that it requires more energy for the boiler to re-heat this water, in order to ensure that you have a hot shower when you get in from work. Easy to install, ThermoPEX is the best insulated piping system for your outdoor furnace, saving energy and maximizing efficiency by keeping heat loss to a minimum. In this study, the heat leakage of LNG tanks would be investigated, because it is the main reason for BOG of LNG tanks. When a fluid moves from a tank or vessel into a pipe system or vice versa there are pressure losses. 04 m of height; Steam is available at 8 barg; You can find the source of my calculation from this link. A 3" Carbon steel pipe is carrying hot oil at 180°C and insulated with 50 mm thick calcium silicate insulation. (optional power anodes are available on select sizes). Air-cooled heat rejection is predominantly done through convection, and thus an air-cooled engine design must be optimized. materials in the cooling system, or excessive heat from lack of coolant or cavitation. Replies: 11 Views: 481. The equation above is based on the heat loss of an entire flat area where the inside area of the insulation wall is the same as the outside area. BQUICK: posted 04-30-2009 11:06 AM ET (US). Introduction. This then means that it requires more energy for the boiler to re-heat this water, in order to ensure that you have a hot shower when you get in from work. org ©2012 CAGI. γ represents the specific weight of fluid. Choosing the right size radiator can be a daunting prospect, but we’re here to help. As energy, heat is measured in watts (W) whilst temperature is measured in degrees Celsius (°C) or Kelvin (K). Individual Steam Properties Calculator watch tutorial view guide Calculates steam and liquid water properties given two properties using the IAPWS Industrial Formulation 1997. The following is a design tool which calculates the inductance of an air core inductor. In order to model this, I assumed two heat transfer processes to calculate the two overall heat transfer. Alternatively to find the evaporation loss by the following formula (Reference: Perry’s Chemical Engineers Hand Book) Evaporation loss in m 3 /hr = 0. The Hazen-Williams formula is an empirical rule, that holds well for cold water running in pipes under turbulent flow conditions. Although theoretically it is better to have a stainless steel inner tank for lower heat loss but ideally while buying you should look at the standing loss and BEE star. Pipeline Pressure Loss. from heavy manual work). Therefore, as the flue gas is heating the water tank, the coils are taking up the heat. Q = heat loss (W, Btu/hr) α = heat transfer rate (W/(m 2 o C), Btu/hr ft 2 o F) A = area (m 2, ft 2) dt = temperature difference (o C, o F) Example - Heat loss from an insulated exposed tank. The water in the tank is used strictly to store heat — it is not part of the potable water system. In this example, a pressurized water tank with a specific gravity of 1. In times of heavy hot water usage, less hot water will be available until after a period of “reheating” time. Insulation is cladded with a sheet with surface emissivity of 0. Length of Bows - Measurement B on the diagram. Manual J: A/C Load Calculations may be done room-by-room for the whole house, which allows you to determine how much conditioned air, in cubic feet per minute CFM each room needs for both heating and cooling. 293 watt-hour or the energy released by burning one match. KW Liquid Tank Heating: Calculation Form. * Heating multipliers (H. Change the minutes to seconds timed (60 x 3= 180 seconds plus 9 seconds totals 189). Air Source Heat Pump Calculator Please use the handy air source heat pump calculator on the below link to work out what your home is likely to save and earn from an Air Source Heat Pump and the various Renewable heat energy technologies available. This equation can be used up to 200 °C surface temperature. Yahoo Answers is a great knowledge-sharing platform where 100M+ topics are discussed. But in many ways, it is. The first is conduction, which is defined as transfer of heat occurring through intervening matter without bulk motion of the matter. Use the formula in Figure 6-6 to figure tank-cooling capacity. Low initial cost. Using well-insulated tanks and piping is the most cost-effective way of minimizing heat loss. The balance between heat production and heat loss determines the resultant cooling rate, be it a whole-body cooling or a local cooling of a part of the body. Tank Heat Loss. Calculate overall heat transfer coefficients for walls or heat exchangers. 5 gallons per square foot of collector. The calculator can be used for estimation of flow rate, pipe diameter and heat power of liquefied petroleum gas - LPG. CALCULATION OF THE POWER REQUIRED FOR HEATING A VOLUME OF LIQUID. The heat losses are calculated for each storage tank as a function of the storage tank heat transfer coefficient (expressed as kW m 2 K), the storage diameter and the period dependent mass content of the storage;. Thumb Calculator. A lumped parameter approach was used based on three indices evaluated for particular configurations from much more detailed computations. wide, 3 ft long, 2 ft deep and weighing 270 lbs, is filled with water to within 6 inches of the top. Hot water cylinders are used in mains-pressure and gravity-fed heating systems. CompuTrace VT provides the user with the capability of designing heat tracing systems utilizing Thermon's compliment of constant wattage, both series and parallel resistance, self. (2) (Total 10 marks). 4) Use the chart below to calculate the recommended wattage or calculate it yourself with this example: A room that is 10 feet wide by 13 feet wide with an 8 foot ceiling and Average insulations = 10 x 13 = 130 then 130 x 10 watts/per square foot = 1300 Watts. As you heat the metal, the particles vibrate, these vibrations make the adjacent particles vibrate, and so on and so on, the vibrations are passed along the metal and so is the. More complex methods use a computer to repeat the same simple formula 8,760 times, once for each hour of the year, using hourly variable assumptions. Volume / Surface Area Calculator: Tank Type. These are just guidelines based on years building smokers but your mileage may vary!. The caimed insulation rating is R19. 095 m into the tank on the two walls of the tank of width equal to 1. Heat transfer processes are classified into three types. A medium (80-gallon) storage tank works well for three to four people. Circuit waterworks provides the necessary pressure of water supplied to the turbine blades, which drives a generator, producing electricity. R-value is a measurement that rates how resistant a product is to heat flow, measuring the ability of heat to transfer from one side of an object to another. D41 Technical Data Heat Calculations Heating Liquids (Water) An open steel tank, 2 ft. These applications can be as small-scale as under oor heating systems such as the Ondol system used in Korea which uses heat generated from cooking stoves [7], to more large. Let’s take a deeper look at how to calculate a heat pump’s heating COP. For homes, solar radiation from the sun is by far the biggest source as the sun bears down on the roof and walls. Leaks at upper cylinder liner counter bore. In the hydraulic systems section, there is a real time simulation of a power unit. This website should only be used as a guide to indicate how well an Ecodan air source heat pump can perform IF the system incorporating that heat pump is designed, installed, commissioned and operated correctly. Pipeline Pressure Loss. Instead of going through the calculations for each data point I’ve imported the information into a spreadsheet and graphed the intercooler efficiency function. Ruffneck™ Heat Loss Calculator Ruffneck™ Heater Sizing Calculator Literature & Media Brochures / Catalogs Thermon offers a simple system for cost-effective heating of tanks and hoppers utilizing our RT and RTF for tank heating, HT Module for hopper heating and ThermaSeam for standing seam insulation systems. These are currently the three most widely used refrigerants on the market today for HVAC applications in residential and commercial use. Heat loss describes the amount of heat your home loses. In the use of heat exchangers radiation does take place. A combi boiler is a type of boiler which provides heated water instantly, it doesn’t store hot water in a tank, it just takes water straight from the mains and heats it up. The water in the tank is used strictly to store heat — it is not part of the potable water system. Please enter your ZIP/Postal. I am very. If it did not freeze, water would be the ideal heat-transfer fluid for cooling applications. Household size Electric storage Heat pump Solar hot water; 1 - 3 people. Consult the manufacturer's documentation to find out what the efficiency of your particular heating unit is. TANKS is a Windows-based computer software program that estimates volatile organic compound (VOC) and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions from fixed- and floating-roof storage tanks. Ambient temperature is 28°C and wind velocity is 3. The surface loss and other unaccounted percentage loss is assumed to have certain values based on the type and size of the boiler. Heat Sink Calculator is a software tool for designing, analysing and optimizing heat sink performance. We define the head developed by a pump as. For example, you can select a 900 square foot room size, or a room type, like 'large basement', 'small office' or '2 bedrooms'. Start, stop or transfer your power and electric service. We list it on our site because we do sell replacement parts for this unit. When deciding on a heating system, many factors will come into play: cost of fuel, installation cost, convenience and life style are all important. As a result, in unfavorable temperatures a baby will become distressed much more rapidly than an adult. A significant amount of heat may be transferred through the tank shell and the volume of vapors generated as a result of this heat input can be substantial. While heat exchanger networks try to optimize the energy costs for heating and cooling utility, capital costs are often difficult to calculate and incorporate in the analysis. This example demonstrates the calculation of heat loss for only one unit period , 12 !>-r7 , using an ambient temperature of 35 F , a wind velocity of 10 ?3!. Heat Loss Calculation Application: Excellent when determining heat loss of a building as a whole. the greater the loss through the jacket Hi hot rod, The manufacturer didn't seem to give any consideration to the delta T. This free online math web site will help you learn mathematics in a easier way. Although the heat loss area is enlarged with the increasing tank size, the increasing mass of oil can significantly slow down the cooling rate, and the heat loss of unit mass oil decrease in the mean time. Heat loss/gain takes place from a pipe carrying hotter/ colder fluid than ambient temperature. Such a home requires a much smaller boiler per square foot that an old wood-frame house with no insulation. Made from CFC-free polyurethane foam , the insulation encases the inner tank while ensuring the safety of the outer tank even at high temperatures. Mathematical modelling of heat exchange in ash tank heat exchanger cascades P 1. So it lost 30 joules. As energy, heat is measured in watts (W) whilst temperature is measured in degrees Celsius (°C) or Kelvin (K). Perlite Insulation. See full list on industrialheatingsystems. Non Co2 Low Tech Planted Tank. Rate of heat transfer is the amount of heat transferred per unit time. The walls of the room. The outlet temperature of the water is 36°C. The size of heat loss depends on the temp and the volume of gas leaving the boiler. 22 loss 22 out out in in s out in p V pV w zz γγ g g gg + + = + +− − In this equation, the symbol. More than 6,000 samples from oil fields. Assuming a blowdown rate of 4%, the savings is approximately 0. Air-cooled heat rejection is predominantly done through convection, and thus an air-cooled engine design must be optimized. methods for calculating heat loss/ heat gain. The principle of hydro electricity generation is quite simple. At this time, we do not carry this unit. + Overall heat transfer coefficient for both Clean and Fouled conditions + Select from different correlations to calculate shell or tube heat transfer coefficient or simply enter the coefficients (database of some common coefficients included) + Shell/Tube side Reynolds & Nusselt numbers. 080 kg dry SS / capita. The specific heat capacity of water is 4180 J kg 1 K-1. Using well-insulated tanks and piping is the most cost-effective way of minimizing heat loss. The calculator can be used for estimation of flow rate, pipe diameter and heat power of liquefied petroleum gas - LPG. The latent heat of vaporization, L v. TANKS is a Windows-based computer software program that estimates volatile organic compound (VOC) and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions from fixed- and floating-roof storage tanks. 5 and meets ASHRAE 90. As the test shows, the loss is significant, and reducing tank heat loss is definitely worthwhile. The manual also refers to max rated heat output net 80/60c central heating kW 27. The result is energy savings, especially when insulated to control the amount of heat loss. Tank water evaporation is a normal part of the cycle in a fish tank. Since the tank is not pressurized and is open to atmosphere then the pressure p 1 is zero and therefore H 1 is zero. Perlite Insulation. Heat Exchanger Rating (Bell-Delaware Method) Heat Exchanger Analysis (ε - NTU Method) Heat Loss from Insulated Pipe. 6 SCFH (Standard ft 3 /h) of air for each 42 US gallon barrel or 0. This is to be used as an estimation. And the cen-tralization storage of oil is a more energy conservation storage pattern. The rate of flow of oil is 1 kg/s. A combi boiler is a type of boiler which provides heated water instantly, it doesn’t store hot water in a tank, it just takes water straight from the mains and heats it up. Glycol Heat-Transfer Fluids Ethylene Glycol versus Propylene Glycol Water is probably the most efficent heat-transfer fluid known. Multiply result by wind correction factor from above for total heat loss. 8 m diameter and 6. Mathematical modelling of heat exchange in ash tank heat exchanger cascades P 1. Calculate the heat loss due to radiation. Heat from the interior space must be able to move into the water where it can be dissipated or removed by cooling breezes. Calculation of temperature rise: Surface area of 4 vertical side of the tank (Heat is considered to be dissipated from 4 vertical sides of the tank) St= 2(Wt + lt) Ht m2 (Excluding area of top and bottom of tank) Let = Temp rise of oil (35o C to 50o C) 12. To reduce heat loss through windows, the installation of double / triple glazing can significantly reduce any losses. KW Liquid Tank Heating: Calculation Form. 184 J/g · C H2O(g) = 2. NOTE: The Fields in RED can be left Blank. • Define and calculate swept volume. Calculate Total Heat Loss for Tank — Multiply the adjusted heat loss per square foot per °F ﬁ gure by the temperature differential. 09 J/g · C H2O (l) = 4. I am very. 06 g/s) Calculate the consumption if the vessel had a poor vacuum with helium at p ~ 0. They will also calculate the number of tubes needed for a shell and tube heat exchanger and to calculate the pipe length needed for a double pipe heat exchanger. Designing a tank heating or cooling system involves two basic steps. is negative for a pump, the head developed by a pump. Pressure vessel thickness calculation excel. An installed geothermal heat pump has an average cost of: $11,000 to $25,500. Area of Greenhouse - This number is used in the Heater BTU Calculator to calculate the minimum BTU output heater needed for your greenhouse. Made from CFC-free polyurethane foam , the insulation encases the inner tank while ensuring the safety of the outer tank even at high temperatures. Result will be displayed. heat exchanger calculator The Heat Exchanger Calculator is a program specially designed to predict the performance of the heat exchanger Model Number you choose based on the parameters you input. ) BTU/Hr based on. The floor input is only used to calculate the roof area, which is used in the heating load calculations. Select a preliminary heat exchanger configuration. eat healthy foods like vegetables They Product On Shark Tank For Weight Loss are very natural and you can get more nutrients You can also assure that it has no carbohydrates and calories and thus. Also, there will always be heat loss to the environment, increasing the amount of heat required, which increases the heating time and cost. Perlite Insulation. BQUICK: posted 04-30-2009 11:06 AM ET (US). For that find the intersection point of the vertical line that shows the air. Turbulent Flow Basics. 5St=Total full load losses ( Iron loss + Cu loss). The heat loss from the tank is important in that heat lost out the tank walls is heat that can't be used for hot showers etc. As energy, heat is measured in watts (W) whilst temperature is measured in degrees Celsius (°C) or Kelvin (K). The retention time is 25 days at 32 O C and the digester heat loss equivalent is 0. A set of 20 calculators to help steam practitioners and designers with issues such as valve sizing, pipe sizing, start up and running losses from tanks and pipes and many more. Define the level application. (This is called “Stand-by heat loss”) This also can result in some noticeable temperature difference. Heat loss is reduced as air is a poor conductor of heat. eat healthy foods like vegetables They Product On Shark Tank For Weight Loss are very natural and you can get more nutrients You can also assure that it has no carbohydrates and calories and thus. JohnD 6 Jun 2018. Heat loss from lagged and unlagged, sheltered and exposed oil tanks. If V = volume of house, then the total loss of air is given by VN (m3/hr or ft3/hr) This hot air is replaced with cold air which has to be heated. A high and sustained rate of whole-body heat loss is required for the development of hypothermia (drop in core temperature) (Maclean and Emslie-Smith 1977). " A car's fuel consumption is a measure of miles driven per gallon of gas. Approximate heat loss of the desired volume can be calculated through help of these tables. Many factors affect the performance of an Ecodan air source heat pump; and in turn the data displayed on this website. 4 - 6 people. • Radiation heat transfer is a secondary source of tank surface heat losses. Enter the insulation area (as a percentage of the. Fuels that burn like coal, natural gas, oil and wood have heat loss out of the chimney. The resulting expression for total heat loss agrees with observed cooling pond performance better than other formulas presently in use. Indirect tank heating uses a heat transfer medium to apply the heat to the tank. The outlet temperature of the water is 36°C. bottom and sides have. 8 Please click here. I just recently learned about hybrid heat pump water heaters for the home that have much higher heating efficiency than standard electric. The diagram enables calculation of the pressure loss in the branches on the basis of bend angle, air duct diameter and air capacity. Later cars have a sealed system in which any overflow goes into an expansion tank , from which it is sucked back into the engine when the. The thermal resistance of the heat sink and temperature of the power source is calculated. Heat Pump Calculator 2. Pipe Heat Loss Considerations for Industrial Applications. If a 50-ft piping distance is used for the preceding example, and the valve is shifted once every minute, then the temperature gradient relative to flow may appear as shown in Figure 1. Q6 Conductive Heat Loss from a House Part C: Firstly, Q total --- the total number of joules of heat lost to conduction during the entire winter. Disallowing for wind factors, similar types of glazings lose heat at the same rate. A solid (a block of metal, say) has one surface at a high temperature and one at a lower temperature. A way to reduce loss from evaporation would be to reduce the volume of the space above the liquid in the tank. This is a test to estimate heat loss from the storage tank on our solar water heating system. Incropera and David P. • Define and calculate isothermal efficiency. The floor heating system pumps water from near the top of the tank through the radiant floor. TANKS is based on the emission estimation procedures from Chapter 7 of EPA's Compilation Of Air Pollutant Emission Factors (AP-42). In very cold weather a sig- nificant mechanism for heat loss by the human body is energy expended in warming the air taken into the lungs with each breath. Paragraph 8 uses a roof and filter coefficient of 80% (cell F35) which is 10% loss of water off the roof (mostly evaporation) and 10% filter loss (water going to drain with debris and leaves). h = depth of enclosure. Some products may not be available in your area. (slightly less based on the following formula: (8. The nVent RAYCHEM NGC-30 FLEX Series is designed to optimize heat trace panel configurations and meet customer project needs by reducing production lead times and simplifying design options. To calculate the energy required to raise the temperature of any given substance, here's what you require: The mass of the material, m The temperature change that occurs, DeltaT The specific heat capacity of the material, c (which you can look up). Heat loss from lagged and unlagged, sheltered and exposed oil tanks. γ represents the specific weight of fluid. Consider steady heat conduction through a large plane wall of thickness. Refrigerant Pressure Temperature Chart - PT Chart for R-410A, R-134A and R-22. High Pressure Steam Piping Heat Loss. Another case for making the tank larger than the general rule is to add cooling capacity. All of the tank’s exterior walls can radiate heat to the atmosphere, so the larger the tank the greater the heat dissipation. 10M Plus: R22, Thickness: 10mm (0. however, have already claimed to have lost about 25 pounds in 4. Indirect tank heating uses a heat transfer medium to apply the heat to the tank. Insulation reduces the heat loss to surroundings. 6 m 2 Compute the heat loss for each component using equation Q2 = U. Low initial cost. TANKS is a Windows-based computer software program that estimates volatile organic compound (VOC) and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions from fixed- and floating-roof storage tanks. Determination of heat requirements, heat transfer and heat loss calculations are all covered in this tutorial. Water cooling is often used in order to help dissipate or at least transfer large amounts of dissipated power (heat) which can be typical of many power electronics and repetitive pulsed power applications. 4) x (70 - 50) = 368 BTU per hour Underground tank. Since the tank is not pressurized and is open to atmosphere then the pressure p 1 is zero and therefore H 1 is zero. Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient Calculation - Pick Horizontal or Vertical Plate: C and n below are found in the table above for the Gr*Pr value calculated here. That heat loss is accounted for using the efficiency column. 5" thickness. materials in the cooling system, or excessive heat from lack of coolant or cavitation. This website should only be used as a guide to indicate how well an Ecodan air source heat pump can perform IF the system incorporating that heat pump is designed, installed, commissioned and operated correctly. com offers a set of resources, including calculators for a variety plumbing and heating products. 2) A pot of water is heated by transferring 1676 kJ of heat energy to the water. Data Pipe Size (inch) 0. This Calculation does not allow for heat losses. 3 m2 Flat fixed cover (roof) area = Π * r 2 = 176. 1 Btu = 1 055. • Heat losses are a strong function of both wind velocity and ambient air humidity. These calculators offer various variables and it is a good idea to try them all to get a good idea of what is involved in calculating heat pump requirements. The SolarStor tank has a rated heat loss of less than. WARNING: The products listed on this site may contain nicotine. This chapter deals with the theoretical and mathematical aspects of heat conduction, and it can be covered selectively, if desired, without causing a sig-nificant loss in continuity. A significant amount of heat may be transferred through the tank shell and the volume of vapors generated as a result of this heat input can be substantial. To calculate volume of an oval tank find the area, A, of the end, which is the shape of a stadium, and multiply it by the length, l. Future Developments. The primary role of one is to store water and heat it via immersions or a coil. Compressed Air & Gas Institute 1300 Sumner Avenue Cleveland, OH 44115. Specific Heat (BTU/lb F): Specific Heat (BTU/lb F): Thermal Conductivity (BTU/hr ft F): Thermal Conductivity (BTU/hr ft F): Latent Heat (BTU/lb): Latent Heat (BTU/lb): Temperature (F): In Out: Temperature (F): In Out. A medium (80-gallon) storage tank works well for three to four people. Most solar water heaters contain a heat exchanger to separate the potable water from the solar heating solution (Water/Glycol) and have a great insulation value that can retain the heat for day. Gary’s total shop heat loss is the sum of all the totals: Walls - 13166 Windows - 2916 Doors - 2244 Ceiling - 4860 Floor - 7680 Infiltration - 31143 Total Shop Heat Loss - 62009 BTU’s per hour at Outdoor Design Temperature. Sample Office Building Space Area (ft2) HVAC Area (ft2) 1st Floor 10,000 8,000. Let’s take a deeper look at how to calculate a heat pump’s heating COP. Tank Heat Loss. Immersion Heater Wattage Calculator. In compressed air purge, about 15% of the dry compressed air leaving the dryer is expanded to about 45 psig and directed downward through the wet tank to purge moisture from the tank. The latent heat of sublimation, L s. Look at the tank temperature rise rate and calculations to see whether your reservoir temperature can be controlled. Here is a sample calculation of a water tank heat loss using the Table above (NOTE: the room temperature is at 60º F), where: Water temperature: 150 Fº; Surface area: 10 ft 2 (You calculate this by measuring the top open area; IE 4' x 2. Nelson Heat Trace Introduces Nelson Design Suite and New Heat Trace Designer Software It is a web based software tool for the design of industrial piping, tank and vessel heating systems using an array of cables and heating methods. Includes 53 different calculations. The surface heat loss can be computed with the help of a simple relation as given below. We know that as the diameter of the pipe increases, loss due to friction also increases; the bigger the diameter, the larger the area of contact. Calculate the amount of heat required to convert 32 g of water at 40 C completely to steam at 124 C. Q1 - TIME TO HEAT How long should it take for the boiler to heat all 300 litres of water? At the moment I have it set for an hour in the morning. Example 6-5 : Calculate the heat budget for a mesophilic digester system, serving 100,000 population, producing 0. Tank type heaters fire on and off all the time to maintain the temperature of water in the tank within about 10° - 15° of the thermostat setting. Individual Steam Properties Calculator watch tutorial view guide Calculates steam and liquid water properties given two properties using the IAPWS Industrial Formulation 1997. Additional friction pressure losses occur due to fittings. See full list on industrialheatingsystems. It is approximately the energy needed to heat one pound of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit. SAP calculations explained A SAP rating is the calculation that is required in order to produce a Predicted Energy Assessment and an On Construction Energy Performance Certificate. These calculators use relevent information specific to your project to help you figure out what you need for the job. 1 watt is approximately 3. In the foot-pound-second (FPS) system, the units are pounds per square inch, or psi. bottom and sides have. Providing a means of discharging this large volume of vapors and prohibiting an increase of pressure within the tank is defined as emergency venting ( Vents That Provide Emergency Pressure. Roof loss is much greater if you have a sedum or other organic roof. Our site contains tons of hero builds, a talent calculator, charts, statistics, and much more! We also cover patch notes, new heroes, and other HOTS news. 2) Length of the pipe for vertical heat exchanger is 13 m/kW to 17 m/kW, andfor the horizontal approximately 30% to 50% longer 3) Installation depth of the horizontal heat exchanger is from 1,2 m to 1,8 m In the following example, calculation will be performed for heating the object area of 180 m2 and a height of the walls of 2,8 m. Heat Loss Calculation In Storage Tanks - posted in Industrial Professionals: Dear Friends, I am trying to estimate required steam for coils located in Storage Tanks. CALCULATION OF OVER-ALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT The net loss of heat from a water body for a given period must equal the heat lost by long-wave radiation, convection and evaporation less the heat gained by short wave radiation. Energy and cost calculator for heating water With this calculator you can calculate the energy you will need to heat water with a certain flow. The floor heating system pumps water from near the top of the tank through the radiant floor. Your ZIP/Postal code has not been set. That heat loss is accounted for using the efficiency column. If it did not freeze, water would be the ideal heat-transfer fluid for cooling applications. High flow rate requirement in the system, high resistance across the system/boiler pump is too small, or multiple heat sources for the property. The second form calculates the minimum pipe size to limit pressure loss to a specified value. To this end, to calculate heat loading, you need to calculate the contribution from each source and add them together. To lose weight, you need to calculate your energy balance equation, then change the numbers to achieve weight loss. When freeze conditions exist (<35 F), ethylene glycol and propylene glycol can be added to water to provide. Determine the amount of heat in J gained by the water if the specific heat of water is 4. It is the height to which a pump can raise the water / fluid up.